Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: Pediatrics – new Textbook available now! – INSPIRE
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Buy eBook. Written and edited by leaders in the field, Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation: Operations, Technology, and Innovative Practice is optimized for a variety of learners, including healthcare educators, simulation directors, as well as those looking to pursue a career in simulation operations as healthcare simulation technology specialists. The book has been edited and authored by those who are pioneers and experts in understanding, defining, and developing the role of the healthcare simulation technology specialist, many of whom have been involved with various simulation organizations around the globe.
Baily and Dr. The text fulfills a need of the healthcare simulation community, which is to provide a comprehensive resource for the modern healthcare simulation technology specialist. Scott B. He has served as a reviewer and author for standards of best practice for healthcare simulation and topics related to simulation and technology education. Lance W.
He is passionate to empower healthcare educators and simulation technology specialists to learn, network, and engage with their peers from around the world. Stormy M. In addition, she has served as the Research Director for SimGHOSTS, an international nonprofit group dedicated to providing technology education and innovation to simulation centers worldwide. As we all know, student engagement in a tricky term!
Objectives of the Chapter J. The prin- e-mail: gord. Bismilla consider regardless of the educational intervention being Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, planned, whether it is low-stakes practice, high-stakes ON, Canada assessment or simulation-based research. The degree to e-mail: zia. Lai and standardization of scenario design will vary for these Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Calgary, different contexts. Calgary, AB, Canada e-mail: anita. Grant, A. Cheng eds.
Huffman et al. Table 2. It could be the result of a gen- It is important to identify which objectives are best met eralized approach to curriculum development or a specific using simulation and which simulation modalities are the identified gap in knowledge or procedural skills. While the most appropriate e. Simulation needs, the approach in designing an effective scenario can should be reserved for those objectives which are most ap- be daunting. By using a structured process, a road map is propriate for its use and cannot be adequately addressed created to define specific educational goals and to set the using other less resource-intensive educational modalities.
It also allows Scenario design, although one component of SBE, pro- for a recognizable format that can be more easily reproduced vides a foundation for the other components to build upon and followed by other educators. In our experience, a well- and provides a venue for participants to explore their learn- planned, structured, yet flexible scenario will be the spring- ing objectives.
An effective design allows the scenario to re- board to a higher level of experiential learning. The experiences from the scenario are then used as a jumping-off point during the debriefing to help learners identify learning issues and Considerations and Theoretical Underpinnings close gaps in knowledge and performance . Simulation scenarios are designed for many purposes. Fidelity is a to answer research questions, and to perform assessments .
It is an area of active The design of the scenario should reflect the intended purpose. Our understanding of fidelity, particu- For instance, when a scenario is used within a research study larly in the realm of SBE, has been greatly enhanced through or for high-stakes assessments, the design should be specific, the work of pioneers like Dieckmann and Rudolph [12, 13].
In this section, we need to recognize that humans think about fidelity in at we will explore some additional considerations that should be least three dimensions: 1 the physical, 2 the conceptual taken into account when designing a scenario. Physical fidelity refers to whether the simulation looks re- Curriculum and Scenario Design Within Simulation- alistic [9, 13].
It concerns the mannequin itself, both its form Based Education and capabilities, as well as the surrounding environment and Simulation scenarios can be presented as isolated, one-time equipment.
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Conceptual fidelity concerns theory, meaning, events; however, it is increasingly common for them to be concepts, and relationships. It is embodied in the if-then rela- integrated within a larger curriculum [4—6]. Finally, emotional fidelity that curriculum will influence its design. Specifically, the concerns actions and relations of an emotional kind. The overall of activation as well as how pleasant or unpleasant their curriculum will also affect the time it will be possible to allot experiences are perceived .
Specifi- mannequin to hear what the participants are saying or, alter- cally, assumptions have existed for some time that fidelity is natively, your participants are overwhelmed by all they are the single critical determinant of transfer and that the higher seeing.
However, this notion has recently been delity are increased include having a well-written scenario challenged [9, 12, 15]. In our opin- important to learning than physical fidelity [9, 12]. However, ion, thinking of fidelity in terms of the different subtypes de- this has not yet been demonstrated definitively in the litera- scribed above can help to understand how tailoring different ture.
One study that specifically manipulated psychological aspects of the scenario design may improve resemblance and fidelity showed a clear advantage for greater realism . Important choices with respect Teamwork to types of mannequins, use of confederates, etc. One needs to consider, for example, if transfer, influence the design process. First is the importance of in- learner engagement, or suspension of disbelief are optimized cluding interprofessional and teamwork objectives in the through the use of a high-fidelity mannequin or perhaps a design.
The Comprehensive Textbook of Healthcare Simulation
Secondly, we also advocate strongly for the value of low-fidelity version or even a task trainer that can suit the having actual interprofessional input into the scenario design objectives equally well. Similarly, the location of the sce- process.
A simulation lab is One of the main uses of SBE is to teach teamwork and convenient and generally efficient but may not be as realistic interprofessional skills see Chaps. These objectives are sometimes overlooked in space in situ see Chap. If your objectives relate spe- favor of those that focus specifically on clinical knowledge cifically to the environment in which the participants usually and technical skills. Although teaching clinical knowledge work or will be working, then the scenario should take place and technical skills are an important part of SBE, one of the there.
Otherwise, it may be reasonable to use the lab instead. Thus, your scenario, consider your learning objectives and which in the design process, the importance of including objectives mannequin functions will be important to facilitate meeting related to interprofessional skills and teamwork as well as those objectives see Chap. Examples include the need higher order clinical skills should not be underestimated [5, for eyes that open and close, accurate representation of the 20]. Similar thought tential issues around the interprofessional objectives can be should be put into the other areas of physical fidelity listed more easily predicted.
In addition, the realism of the sce- earlier. Sometimes, the scenario will require high physical fi- nario as it relates to each individual profession will also be delity in order to maximize psychological fidelity and allow maximized. This approach will indirectly maximize the in- the participants to behave as if the situation were real i. Other times, maximizing certain various healthcare professions. While there is no direct evidence that pants. Similarly, a consultant might strongly and When designing a scenario which includes teamwork- more vehemently, based on the skill level of the learners related objectives, there are many strategies which can be suggest an inappropriate course of action.
However, distrac- employed in order to maximize the opportunity to trigger tion needs to be used very carefully and with specific objec- teamwork issues . One such method is challenging the tives in mind. Another strat- because they become fixated on or even overwhelmed by egy is called the wave effect.
The concept of cognitive are introduced sequentially into the scenario e. The benefit of this strat- scenario design please see Chap. These distrac- egy is that each time a team member is introduced, there tors increase the intrinsic cognitive load of the participants should be some sort of communication between new and and have the potential to impair acquisition of the primary existing team members. Other methods include but are not learning objectives.
It is our experience that while early in limited to introducing junior team members, introducing their careers, many educators underestimate the difficulty of parents or team members who are distractors or who make the scenarios they are developing, and subsequently plan on mistakes, using phone calls, and providing fewer than nor- adding one or more distractors in order to make the scenario mal team members .
This is another reason why piloting of a scenario One commonly used element of scenario design is distrac- would be both appropriate and helpful. The general Summary of Pediatric-Specific Scenario Design goal of distraction is to draw the attention of the caregivers Issues away from the task at hand. Distractions generally come in the form of either personnel issues e.
Since pediatrics spans many age groups and with unexpected lab results, etc. For example, it would be challenging for participants ing properly, etc. Ensuring the learning objectives to light. These techniques can ensure that presence of age-appropriate clinical supplies is also impor- particular objectives are met when they may not arise spon- tant. This includes appropriate sizes of airway equipment, taneously within a scenario.
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