The Gobelins factory established. Greation of post of leutenant-general of Paris minister for Paris with a great variety of responsibilities.
French protective tariffs directed against England and the Dutch Republic. Workers' associations banned after revolts in Rheims and Lyons. Reduction in number of printers, to facilitate censorship. Louis orders ,Church peace', forbidding public controversy between Jansenists, Gallicans and Ultramontanes. Secret partition-treaty with Leopold 1 for the Spanish inheritance. Creation of militia by Louis by drawing of lots in parishes.
The maritime inscription of sailors between the ages of 20 and 60 to serve one year in three or four in navy. French factory established at Magilipatam India. French preferential duties aimed at Dutch sugar refineries. Dutch virtual boycott of French goods. Chapel begun, not completed till French concession: restoration of less harsh tariff that of for the Republic.
French factory established at Pondichery India. Urban and rural antifiscal revolts in Brittany. Palace at Marly started. French persecution of the Jansenists. The duke of Mantua sells Casale to France. French bombardment of Tripoli pirates. Louis moves his court and central administration to Versailles. The four Gallican articles attack papal authority in France.
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Reduction in taille benefits peasants. Spain declares war on Louis to stern the French reunion policy in the Spanish Netherlands, and in the duchy of Luxembourg, where the fortress of the City of Luxembourg seems threatened; after the war has started the fortress is taken by the French. Truce of Ratisbon Regensburg for twenty years with Spain and the emperor; Louis is to keep his reunions and conquests such as Luxembourg for that period and hopes to make the settlement permanent at a later date.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Edict of Fontainebleau permitting, liberty of conscience. Water pumped from the Seine to Versailles. Madagascar annexed by France. Conflict with the papacy over the franchise quartiers , that is, right of asylum in embassies in Rome. Journey of French explorer Grefillon through Mongolia.
French militia arrangements improved. The aim of the league was to confine Louis to his boundaries by moral solidarity and diplomatic pressures.
Louis XIV ends the regale dispute with the papacy, setting aside the Gallican articles. Saint-Simon arrives at court; begins notes for his memoirs, Establishment of French factory in Senegal.
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Fenelon exiled from court. Quietism is condemned by Pope Innocent XI. Louis' emissary Poncet travels overland from Cairo to Ethiopia. Attempts to establish lieutenant-generals of police also in provincial towns. Carlos II of Spain, on the advice of the pope, nominates Louis XIV's second grandson, Philip, duke of Anjou, his heir on the condition that no partition shall take place.
Death of Carlos II. Greater freedom of trade permitted to Dunkirk, Marseilles and Bordeaux. France buys the unexpired portion of hbe asiento held by a Portuguese company. Capitation reintroduced.
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Paper money introduced in France. The emperor invades Italy. France prohibits entry of English textiles. The English conquered Acadia in and kept this at the peace, as also Newfoundland and Hudson Bay. The asiento trade in slaves was awarded to England for thirty years. Introduction of the centime denier.
This is Versailles: Louise de La Vallière
Death of the grand dauphin. Louis XIV withdraws his promise of freedom of worship in the principality of Orange. Death of Louis' eldest grandson 18 February , the grandson's wife 12 February and their elder son 8 March. Opening of official peace congress at Utrecht after separate negotiations with the English Tory government after had led to the peace preliminaries of October and to the Anglo-French separate armistice of 17 July Free exchange re-established in France. Peace treaties signed between France and her enemies, except the emperor and Empire.
November to March Peace negotiations between Louis XIV and the emperor. Death of Louis' youngest grandson, the duke of Berry. Louis XIV's will, establishing a regency council of fourteen members, the president of which is to be his nephew, the duke of Orleans, on which his two legitimised sons shall have seat. Louis XIV's illness and final arrangements for the governorship and education of his heir, his great-grandson Louis. Death of Louis XIV. The king made her share Madame de Montespan's apartments at the Tuileries , because the latter was already married and her husband was very uncomfortable with the situation.
During this time, a devastated Louise wrote the Sonnet to the king : . All is destroyed, everything passes, and the most tender heart Can not of the same object be satisfied always; The past has not had eternal love, And the following centuries can not wait for it. Constancy has laws that we do not want to hear; Desires of a great King nothing stops the course: What pleases today displeases in a few days; This inequality can not be understood. Louis, all these faults are wrong with your virtues; You once loved me, but you do not love me anymore. My feelings, alas! Love, to whom I owe and my harm and my good, What did you give him a heart like mine?
Or what did you do mine like the others! Five months later, in October , Louise gave birth to her fifth and last child to the King, a son called Louis after his father. A long period of cohabitation then began between the two mistresses. Despite having Louise as his official mistress and in the middle of his affair with Madame de Montespan, this did not prevent Louis XIV falling in love with Madame de Ludres ; hoping to win back the heart of the King with whom she was still deeply love, Louise accepted all the humiliations inflicted by the new royal mistresses for example, Madame de Montespan demanded that Louise assist her with her toilette, or whenever the King wished to travel with his real mistress, he made both Louise and Madame de Montespan sit in the same carriage with the Queen , but this tactic was unsuccessful: the king neither resumed their relationship nor ended his other affairs.
Louise's son was only legitimized by Louis XIV in , two years after their affair effectively ended. He created the child Count of Vermandois, and gave him the post of Superintendent of the Navy, but because he was still a child, the King retained his authority over the French navy.
- Louise-Françoise de la Baume Le Blanc, marquise de La Vallière (1644—1710);
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The strain of being forced to live with her former lover and his current mistress took its toll on Louise: she lost weight and become increasingly haggard. However, as Monique de Huertas points out, "these Reflections are a mystical call of conversion, rather than a true conversion," which came a few years later. She claims it "a poor creature still attached to the earth, and only crawl into the path of virtue Her love for the king was not yet dead: she admitted that she can not claim to be "dead to her passions, while I feel them live more strongly than ever in what I love more than myself".
The Carmelites followed very strict rules; rejecting the option of being placed in an easier order, she attempted to leave in without the King's permission, fleeing to the convent of Saint Marie de Chaillot. Compelled to return to court, Madame de Montespan urged Louis to dissuade Louise from leaving by publicly recognising their daughter as Mademoiselle de Blois.
Les Confessions de Madame de La Valliere Repentante
The intent was to compel Louise to remain so she could continue to serve as a decoy for his double-adultery with Madame de Montespan. The new favorite, who feared scandal, also wanted to convince Louise to stay at court through Madame Scarron the future Madame de Maintenon , who told the former mistress about the privations and suffering to which she would be expose herself during her stay in a Carmelite convent, as well as the scandal that such decision would not fail to provoke; in addition, she asked Louise if she had fully considered the discomforts that awaited her at the Carmelite convent, which eventually included being forbidden to wear the shoes that allowed her to walk without a limp: "When I shall be suffering at the convent", Louise replied, "I shall only have to remember what they made me suffer here, and all the pain shall seem light to me.
In , she was finally permitted to enter the Carmelite convent in the Faubourg Saint-Jacques; the day she left the court forever, she threw herself at the feet of the Queen, begging forgiveness:. One year later, on 3 June ,  Louise pronounced her perpetual vows as a Carmelite nun under the name of Sister Louise of Mercy ; in the ceremony, she accepted the black veil from the Queen herself, who kissed and blessed her.
He later was involved in a homosexual scandal with his uncle Philippe de France and Philippe's favourite, the Chevalier de Lorraine , and died in while in exile in Flandres. His mother, still obsessed with the sin of her relationship with the King, said upon hearing of her son's death:.
Later in life, Madame de Montespan went to Louise for advice on living a pious life. Louise forgave her, and counselled her on the mysteries of divine grace. After 36 years of religious life, Sister Louise of Mercy died on 6 June aged She was buried in the cemetery of her convent. Saint-Simon wrote:  "she died [ Sainte-Beuve considers that, of the three most famous favorites of Louis XIV, Louise was "by far the most interesting, the only one really interesting in itself.
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Related Louise de la Valliere [with Biographical Introduction]
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