Frazzoli, R. Cammarone, S. Caroli Italy. Arsenic and other potentially toxic trace elements in rice. Frazzoli, D? Amato, S. Total analysis and distribution of trace elements in human, cow and formula milk. Sanz-Medel Spain. Use of spectrochemical methods for the determination of metals in fish and other seafood found in southwest Louisiana, J. Sneddon USA. Essential and potentially toxic chemical elements in beverages.
Smichowski, D. Batistoni Argentina.
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Speciation analysis Species-specific determination of metal lloid -containing food additives and contaminants by chromatography with ICP-MS detection. Polatajko, B. Bouyssiere, J. Szpunar France. Element speciation in human milk and substitute food for newborns. Michalke, M. Maher, J.
Kirby, F. Krikowa Australia.
Sample preparation prior to As- and Se-speciation. Dernovics, P. Fodor Hungary. Maher, F. Katarzyna Wrobel, Kazimierz Wrobel, J. Caruso USA. Determination of mercury species in seafood. Krystek, R. Ritsema The Netherlands. Notes Formerly CIP. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"?
The determination of chemical elements in food : applications for atomic and mass spectrometry
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Login to add to list. Be the first to add this to a list. These variations are due to two mechanisms: i isotopic fractionation—which essentially is due to the breaking of physical bonds of different strengths; and ii radioactive decay—whereby one unstable parent isotope spontaneously disintegrates and eventually results in a stable daughter isotope. The first mechanism concerns stable non-radiogenic isotopes and is above all important for light elements, as will be explained below. Most chemical elements in nature exist with two or more isotopes. Tin is outstanding with its ten stable isotopes.
On the other hand, 20 elements exist in nature with only one stable isotope.
The Determination of Chemical Elements in Food: Applications for Atomic and Mass Spectrometry
Among these elements are gold and phosphorus, which is unfortunate since both are important to archaeologists and museum curators. There are basically two ways of applying isotopic techniques: one to track the background of objects or human remains origin, provenance, diet, migration , and another for dating of investigated objects or sites. Some isotope systems have been utilized for many decades, while others have only recently been tested or used for certain applications. The stable isotopes of carbon have a unique archaeological potential, since analyses of carbon isotopes allow evaluations of both provenance and diet pattern.
Local variations in the proportions of stable isotopes of an element are brought about by isotopic fractionation. Accordingly, evaporation, condensation, rain, snow, melting, crystallization, adsorption, diffusion etcetera may give rise to a small but sometimes measurable isotopic differentiation [ 9 ]. Complicated biochemical processes may also induce a slight isotopic fractionation, for example in photosynthesis, during the synthesis of amino acids or lipids, and processes in bacteria [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ].
In these processes, the isotopic fractionation is due to physical processes such as diffusion. Occasionally, so called mass-independent fractionation MIF can be important in e. Generally, a light element induces larger isotopic fractionation because the relative difference in mass between its isotopes is greater than for a heavy element.
For instance, deuterium D, 2 H is twice as heavy as 1 H, i. The light elements, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen to mention a few, are therefore especially susceptible to natural isotopic fractionation, while much less physical differences are observed for the heavier elements. The reason that the heavy elements strontium and lead have large and easily measurable differences among their isotopes is principally due to radioactive decay processes cf.
Fundamentally, there are two methods to determine the amount of various isotopes in a special material. This method has been used when applying the Carbon dating technique and for other systems such as U-He and Tritium- 3 He, and have been described to detail in the literature [ 18 ]. The working principle behind this technique is that different types of atoms or molecules can be separated according to their masses, and the ratios between the isotopes of interest can be subsequently measured. Most mass spectrometers are designed for the analysis of organic compounds. However, several types of mass spectrometers have been developed to determine isotope ratios and the basic features of a few commonly used types are presented here.
During the latest decades, more advanced mass spectrometers have been developed, producing increasingly better precision for sample sizes becoming smaller and smaller nanogram to picogram levels [e. The amount of sample is therefore rarely a problem, but their purity is of the greatest importance. It utilizes a minute solid sample, previously isolated in a clean laboratory following standard ion exchange procedures.
Application of Mass Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Such laser-based systems remove ablate particles from the surface of a sample which are led to an analyzer. This technique as well as the ion microprobe SIMS; secondary ion mass spectrometry are capable of analyzing samples in situ, which eliminates the need for tedious laboratory treatment. The latter techniques are versatile and can be used for a range of elements, allowing both stable and radioactive isotopes to be analyzed in very small samples; besides, the sample through-put is large compared to e.
The precision obtained with in situ techniques is, however, not as good as for TIMS-analyzed samples. Irrespective of the instrumentation used, samples must be handled with care and thorough analytical protocols need to be followed in order to obtain precise and accurate results. A feature in common for isotopic measurements is the need for standardization, and this is accomplished in different ways and is method-specific.
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